Monday, May 25, 2020

Colgan Air And Continental Connection Flight 3407 Air Crash

Broward Community College Colgan air/Continental Connection Flight 3407 Air Crash Hugo M. Minaya ASC 2320 Aviation Law Professor Mike Nonnemacher 5 August 2013 Hugo M. Minaya ASC 2320 Aviation Law Professor Mike Nonnemacher November 25, 2016 Colgan air/Continental Connection Flight 3407 Air Crash One of the most controversial and important air crash linked to human error of the modern world happened on the night of February 12, 2009. Colgan air flight 3407, operated by Continental Connection, was on final approach to runway 23 at Buffalo-Niagara International Airport as it disappeared from radar. The aircraft was a Bombardier Dash 8, a popular twin engine medium range turboprop Airliner used by many regional carriers. The aircraft entered an uncontrollable stall crashing into to a neighborhood 5 miles northeast of the airport killing all everyone on souls on board. The Captain, Marvin Resnlow and first officer Rebecca Lynne were behind the controls the night of the accident. The NTSB report determined error by both pilots cause the aircraft to crash. Thus, pilot fatigues, improper recovery form a stall were contributing factors. The victim’s family members pushed for congress to overhaul airline regulations. The NTBS investigation delivery multiple findings that eventually led to a modernization of airline operations and pilot training. The NTSB concluded both pilots were suffering from sleep deprivation and fatigue and eventually led to make errors duringShow MoreRelatedPromoting a Skillful, Safe Cockpit Essay1235 Words   |  5 Pageson a regional carrier up to 1500 total flight hours as well as requires those persons to do an extensive Air Transport Pilots examination. Although some parts of this law encourage safety, in the aviation industry it has the potential to cripple it because of the predicted shortage of pilots in the coming years, lost interest of young pilots, potential higher prices for consumers, loss of jobs. All of this for a law, that if it was enacted before the crash would not have the prevented it. The viewRead More A Problem for the Aviation Industry Essay1432 Words   |  6 Pagesenhance airline safety and in part prevent an accident of this nature from occurring again (U.S. House 2010). Section 217 of the bill pushes the minimum hours required to act as a pilot on a regional carrier up to 1,500 total flight hours and requires those persons to do an extensive Air Transport Pilots examination (U.S. House 2010). Although some parts of this law encourage safety, it has the potential to cripple the aviation industry. This is so because of the predicted shortage of pilots in the comingRead MoreReview of the Relevant Literature and Industry Specific Barriers2006 Words   |  9 Pagesscope of aviation. Training institutions who teach 141/142 training programs foster critical thinking and technological skills through ground based instruction as well as learner activities such as simulation. The opportunity for students to practice flight in a safe manner in today’s high-risk , complex training environment is limited to situations involving high-risk maneuvers not ideal for student learning experiences to be simulated. Simulations give students opportunities to perform high-risk maneuversRead MoreHow Unionism Has Impacted the Airline Industry in Us4934 Words   |  20 Pagessummarize main points of how they have impacted and affected this industry overall. 1. Overview of the air transportation sector In spite of many challenges, air travel remains one of the most popular transportation mean in the United States, expanding from 172 million passengers in 1970 to 757 million passengers in 20081 (Bureau labor of statistics, 2000). There were at that time, 19 mainline air carriers that use large passenger jets (more than 90 seats); 67 regional carriers that use smaller piston

Friday, May 15, 2020

Two Features of the Photo-Electric Effect Essay - 2277 Words

The photo electric effect, which was first documented by Einstein in 1905, and posited that the energy of liberated electrons is linearly dependent on the frequency of incident photons. This paper investigates this relationship and measures Plancks constant ($4.36\pm 0.04\e{-21}$MeVs), and the work function of the photo diode ($-1.52\pm0.02$V). Another phenomena which is checked is the charging time of the stopping potential voltage. While there was some dependence between stopping voltage and intensity, this effect is mostly systematic. Both of these experiments provide evidence that the energy imparted by incident photons is dependent on the frequency, and the number of photo electrons is dependent on the number of†¦show more content†¦This gives the following relationship: \begin{equation} \label{eq:linearPE} V = \frac{h}{e}\nu - \frac{W_o}{e} \end{equation} This allows the measurement of the stopping voltage as a function of frequency. Fixing the elementary charge ($e$) as a known, this allows for an experimental determination of Plancks constant ($h$) and the work function of the material ($W_o$). This paper examines two scenarios. The first is a fit to the data using (\ref{eq:linearPE}) to measure $h$ and $W_o$. The second scenario investigates the time dependence of the charge development as a function of intensity. \subsection{Theory} The photo-electric effect is explained in the following situation. Photons with an energy $h\nu$ are incident on a material which can be characterized by a work function $W_o$. This work function represents the amount of energy required to liberate an electron from the atom. The effect postulates a number of experimental results which are easily tested. One is that the work function $W_o$ is independent of the intensity of the incident photons. Here we define intensity as a number density rather than something which scales with the amplitude of the incident electromagnetic waves. This means that the energy of the ejected photons will be independent of the number of incident photons because each electron ejected will be related to the incident photon energy. Conversely, this predicts that the number of liberatedShow MoreRelatedSolar Energy And Solar Power1492 Words   |  6 Pageselectricity and heat. The capacity of solar radiation a place receives depends on a variety of factors such as geographic location, time of day, season, and local weather. According to Knier (n.d.) photo voltaic and concentrating solar power cells are the two forms of sources to produce electricity. Photo voltaic cells generate electricity directly using solar cells and concentrated solar power cells generate electricity using steam. According to The World Bank - for the past three years, India hasRead MoreIntroduction: Now days the renewable energy is utilized in many forms. It exist in forms of various900 Words   |  4 Pagesin this essay I am going to talk about the solar car, its component , advantages and disadvantages of it and development of solar cars. solar car and it’s components solar cars are vehicle which used for land transport. It is an electric vehicle powered by solar energy obtained from solar panels. It consist from solar cells, battery and its body. solar energy sun energy is the source which the solar car depends on it for their energy like other device which run on solar power .Read MoreEssay about History of Photography1254 Words   |  6 Pagessolution to this issue came to be in 1824 when J.N. Niepce invented the photogravure, an image taken by a camera obscura that is transferred to a specially treated metallic plate. The oldest surviving photogravure taken by Niepce dates back to 1827. This photo, titled â€Å"View through a window in Gras† took over eight hours of exposure to create, and even then, the image that was created was blurry and monochrome. After Niepce’s death, his business partner, French painter Louis Jacques Mandà © Daguerre continuedRead MoreThe Earth s State, Photographic Evidence And Data Samples1450 Words   |  6 Pagesfurther analysis for the time remaining was hindered by the low pressure present. Also, the cold weather conditions demanded the use of special clothing and there was no conclusion with evidence on presence of water. The roving equipment captured photos indicating presence of water below the Martian surface. Though man’s mission to the moon has been the most publicized by media and the scientific community, there has been increased interest on missions to planet Mars, but this has mostly been basedRead MoreInvention Of Good Insulation For Telegraph Wires1496 Words   |  6 Pageslater in 1940 40 lines were laid across the Atlantic Ocean. History.com also states that: The electric telegraph transformed how wars were fought and won and how journalists and newspapers conducted business. Rather than taking weeks to be delivered by horse-and-carriage mail carts, pieces of news could be exchanged between telegraph stations almost instantly. The telegraph also had a profound economic effect allowing money to be â€Å"wired† across great distances (par 8). After the rise and decline ofRead More3G Technology and Its Uses1257 Words   |  6 Pageswireless internet access, video calls and mobile TV. 3G show all collection of technology to facilitate a higher speed for data transfer faster than earlier version. CDMA and GSM were primary category of phone technology. 3G network are form by these two different technology that had been elaborated. 3G smartphone can conduct high speed data transfer rate by accessing 3G cell phone technology and its mean browsing, streaming and downloading speed is extremely high. 3G also support for the phone to usingRead MoreGlobal Warming And The Depletion Of Non Renewable Resources3186 Words   |  13 Pagesenergy communities. There are many benefits to achieving carbon neutrality, which will be further explored. A wide variety of clean energy is available, which can be harnessed and even stored for future use. This variety of clean energy no negative effect on the earth. Further more, this paper will outline 6 techniques, which can help in achieving net zero energy. Key words: Net zero, Carbon Neutrality, Sustainable, Resilient, Community Word Count: 1. Introduction Everyday the human race usesRead MoreCultural Perceptions And Ideas Of Aesthetics1076 Words   |  5 Pagestheir insecurities. In response, Nikkie decided to make one half of her face â€Å"full-on flame† and leave the other half â€Å"raw, unedited, nothing, me.† Since then, other women who have been inspired to share their love for makeup start posting similar photos of their own half made-up faces. Makeup is universal and it is used by women and men who want to look pretty all over the world. It is an enjoyment for them to become prettier instead of a thing they need to be shameful for. However, beauty is a reflectionRead MoreCase Study : Segway Pt, Electric Powered Human Transportation Machine1343 Words   |  6 Pages a. Transportation: i. Segway PT: A Segway is a two wheeled, electric-powered human transportation machine. It is a self-balancing machine which uses gyroscopes and accelerometer. Segway PT was developed by Segway Inc. in New Hampshire, USA by Dean Kamen. It was introduced in the year 2001, and offers a new transportation alternative that lends itself towards a walking-based environment. It runs on electric motors and circuits which are located in the base of Segway. If the rider moves forward, SegwayRead MoreSocial Media s Ideal Body Image For Woman1524 Words   |  7 Pagesâ€Å"girlishness†, â€Å"womanhood†, â€Å"effeteness†, and â€Å"womanly† (Merriam Webster/Femininity). When images for â€Å"femininity† are researched, most depict beautiful, perfectly made up, extremely skinny women wearing pink clothing with long, flowing hair. This photo description is social media’s ideal body image for woman. Because of this, sixty nine percent of girls in fifth through twelfth grade reported that pictures on certain types of social media influenced their perception of the ideal body image and forty

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Marketing Plan For Apple s Marketing Strategy - 920 Words

In January 2007, Apple entered the smartphone industry with a firm stride. Apple s iPhone be-came a pioneer in the Internet-enabled multimedia cellular phone commerce. Its revolutionary fea-tures combined everything consumer could possibly wish for: a GSM standard phone, an iPod and an Internet browser. In less than three month after launching, Apple sold over 1 million of iPhones. However, its success started to fade as an array of complaints and restrictions struck the company with an unexpected blow. Apple had to face dissatisfied customers and international law authori-ties. The issue laid in the core of its marketing plan. The company was mainly oriented on innovative technology, forgetting who this technology was actually serving.†¦show more content†¦Thus, SWOT analysis is central to this task. Apple iPhone has lots of strengths, such as brand equity, consumer loyalty, high technologies with unique features, and ease of use, developer support and consistency. Beyond that, having Ste-ve Jobs, as a CEO of the company, the guy who could literally pull rabbits out of his hat (Roger Kay), added a tag of innovation onto the aforementioned list. However, weakness play a much more important role. They are: high price, limited production line, its own closed operating system, which is not compatible with any third party applications or services, and expensive RD. As a result, product is perceived by consumers as a luxury device. As far as opportunities go, Apple has great perspectives in continuing technological advance-ments and geographical expansions, as well as enlargements of potential markets. Yet, threats com-ing along with even more extensive force, involving diverse competitors, heavy dependence on sub-sidies from phone carriers, the U.S. International and European laws protecting consumers. Besides, economic situation of the market itself, as well as company s suppliers, could play extremely im-portant role, since it could directly affect consumer purchasing power, and may also create supply

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Government of Industry Innovation and Science †MyAssignmenthelp

Question: Discuss about the Government of Industry for Innovation and Science. Answer: Introduction: The 21st century mining boom has had a massive boost to the Australian economy. Creation of wealth to most Australians has been diversified such that an addition of consumption generated through an increment in the purchasing power of the consumers. It means production capacities received a major uplift in various industries. As a result employment is created not only through the mining sector but also other supporting industries as well. Investments have generally risen because opportunities to undertake capital accumulation have opened up in the entire economy. More so, it has been guided by an increased investor confidence in the future direction of the market. The availability of more skilled labor is also a testament of the significance of mining to the entire economy of Australia (Costello Knights, 2013). With better prices, comes a better performance of the Australian Dollar in the market. It means that cheaper imports is possible while it enjoys expensive exports. Impressive ly, such expensive exports also involves direct mining products. In short, a favorable balance of trade has been realized such that a continuous growth of net exports is in place. In order to further expand the mining sector, government spending skyrocketed particularly centering on training labor as well as expanding mining supportive industries. Perhaps the most influential macroeconomic variables in the face of the mining boom were the inflation rates, interest rates, employment and unemployment. With an increase in the consumer spending thanks to the income earned, the inflation fell to an all-time low of 1.9% immediately (George, 2016). The whole economy was cushioned from the global financial crisis that was severe especially in the US and the Euro Zone. Secondly, while it generated physical assets like rails and ports, it made exploitation of resources easier which further opened up the economy hence creating more jobs hence a reduction to the unemployment. With the economy performing this better, the interest rates witnessed a reduction owing to the fact that more income meant that loan facilities were further curtailed. Mining boom can be conceptualized in terms of Keynesian Cross Model whereby the equilibrium level of national income can be determined. In this case, the aggregate demand is indicated by the vertical axis while the aggregate demand function is established by an upward sloping line (AD). From the diagram, the aggregate demand is positively sloping as a result of an increase in the disposable income. An increase in the consumer spending means that there is a corresponding increase in the aggregate demand. as a result, there will be an increase in the real GDP in which transfer payments and taxes remain fixed while arise in the disposable incomes experienced. Asset market and commodity market have also witnessed the influence of the 21st mining boom in Australia. For instance, since the economy saw building of ports, a path for exploitation of resources was created which further indicated that asset accumulation was a likely occurrence (Department of Mining Industry, 2017). On the same page, commodity market expansion stands on the same platform as well. In the above diagram, a boom in the mining industry brings more disposable income to the consumers. Consumer spending on the available goods and services rises. This means that the interest rates will then fall leading to an increase in the investments as well as employment and income. Most importantly, the equilibrium output rises as shown in the diagram LM1 moving to LM2. The boom witnessed in the mining industry is explained using a budget constraint that has the government expenditure rise from $50million to $100million generating more returns into the economy.in the budget line, consumers are able to choose from a higher price because the disposable income has risen as well. This implies that there is more output generated particularly through an increase in the disposable income (Poon et al, 2016). Consumers are able to spend more on the available good and services which further increases the surplus that is realized in the economy as shown by the shaded region The diagram above takes into account the increasing level of investments, increasing consumer disposable income, reduced interest rates as well as employment levels rising. Remotely, a rise in the consumer disposable income through a booming mining industry is important in shifting the LRAS curve to the right. It means production efficiency creeps in because a massive reduction of cost is experienced as well as losses from surplus production that the market cannot contain. More income means consumers move to ensure that supply meets demand that is in the market. There is lesser room for overproduction. In the same sense, there is an increase in the overall output in the market which still indicates a falling rate of unemployment as well. Taxation particularly reduces in output because the production cost rises as shown by the shift in the SRAS1 to SRAS2. Mining companies have to incur more expenses in the course of the production capacities. They are then transferred to the consumer in terms of recued earnings. This move has an effect of reducing the level of income in the entire economy which helps to fight inflation. However, it has a negative influence on employment. The boom experienced in the mining industry posed and still does pose a huge threat to the economic stability in terms of the money supply in the economy as shown by increasing levels of consumer disposable income. In response to this, the government adopted a couple of fiscal policies. For example, the government imposed a 5% tax on all mining incomes (Mudd, 2007). This was particularly important in cutting down the massive levels of income that consumers getting and the investors as well. Doing this was also important in ensuring that inflation was kept at very low levels. More so, there was also the adoption of a policy that involved spending up to $100million on exploration meant to replace the funds scooped through interest rate increases. On the monetary policy, it was adopted through setting of the base year inflation rates at under 2% in order to combat the increasing money supply that mining had brought in the economy. The achievement centered on capping the interest rates by the mining the companies. More so, according to Yeomans (2016), it is important to control investors which directly tackles the problem of over production. As more money streams into the economy, there are more concerns for the eventuality that is inflation. Consumers hence stand at the foot of destabilizing economy. While the government had to set higher interest rates of up to 5% on the mining incomes it meant that consumers were encouraged to save more, borrow less and ensure that there is less money supply in the economy which can as well stifle economic growth. Inflation is a bigger player in destabilizing the market based on this. In the diagram, when interest rates are increased, the aggregate demand falls which basically indicates that consumer disposable income is reduced shown by the shift from AD1 to AD2. There is lesser money to spending on the available goods in the market. More so, there will be a fall in the real GDP as well because production capacities are cut down as a result. The government policies adopted in the course of the market boom experienced through mining activities had a huge impact on the government deficit and debt with regard to the budget line. Essentially, a cyclical budget deficit takes into account the fluctuations in the spending in an economy as well as the level of fluctuations in the tax revenue. The boom in the mining industry in Australia actually did create a lot of revenue in the economy as a whole. This had a huge effect in easing government debt at the time. More so, theoretically, a boom in a particular sector has an effect of spreading in most parts of the economy with regard to growth particular of closely related sectors as well. Where the government. However, the fact that it is cyclical indicates that the economy will likely fall back into the same state that it was in before the boom was realized. This is not the case because the government made huge increase in the spending meant to diversify the industry with the chie f reason of creating more employment opportunities. This alludes to the practicality of the structural deficit control. From the above budget line, the original budget indicates the total expenditure before any changes were made by the government. Since, the economy experiences a boom in terms of the increasing returns, a both the structural and cyclical budget deficits take place. However, an addition of income in the economy means that they are in instead avenues of reducing the debt as well as the deficit. As a result, the new budget line will squeeze inwards showing that there is a more tendency for the budget to respond to the changes in the economic set up particularly the dynamism associated with it. Both the structural and cyclical debts/deficits have a similar impact with regard to taking the economy back to equilibrium by pointing to an increased revenue through the boom in the mining activities which eventually opens up the entire economy (Philips, 2017). References Mudd, G. M. (2007). The sustainability of mining in Australia: key production trends and their environmental implications. Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University and Mineral Policy Institute, Melbourne. Poon, A., Raval, S., Banerjee, B. P., Shamsoddini, A. (2015). Detection of Changes in the Wetland Conditions adjacent to a Longwall Mining Area in the Southern Coalfields, New South Wales Using Radar Satellite Data.Journal of Research Projects Review, 35. Costello, C., Knights, P. (2013). Grizzly Modifications at ridgeway deeps Block cave Mine. Mining Education Australia, 11. Department of Mining industry (2017). Australia's Mineral Commodities. Australian Government of Industry, Innovation and Science. Retrieved from: https://industry.gov.au/resource/Mining/Pages/default.aspx Philips, K. (2016). The mining boom that changed Australia. Australia Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved from: https://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/rearvision/the-mining-boom-that-changed-australia/7319586 Yoemans, J. (2016). Australia's mining boom turns to dust as commodity prices collapse. The Telegraph. Retrieved from: https://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/newsbysector/industry/mining/12142813/Australias-mining-boom-turns-to-dust-as-commodity-prices-collapse.html George, M.W. (2016)."Mineral Commodity Summaries 2016"(pdf). Reston, VA: U.S. Geological Survey. pp.7071.

Saturday, April 11, 2020

Greg Sirico Essays - McCulloch V. Maryland, , Term Papers

Greg Sirico Adv American Gov. November 14th '98 McCulloch v Maryland Can congress incorporate a bank? Can a state tax the national government? These were some of the key issues that brought up in the Supreme Court case of McCullloch v Maryland. James Madison, the judge in this case, rules in favor of the National Government. He proclaimed that it was constitutional to have a national bank, and not appropriate for Maryland to tax the bank. Now we turn the tables toward Maryland. In my reasoning I believe that Maryland can uphold their right to tax the national bank, as well as make claims of the ?necessary and proper clause? being incorrect in it's meaning. Maryland in my opinion holds very good references and ideas which lead me to believe that the national bank should never have been created, and if so created be able to have been taxed. Both points coming from the Constitution. Maryland as well as every other state in the union, has the power to tax. It is a concurrent power, which enables them (Maryland) to obtain the power to tax. The power to tax is the power to create. Since the national bank itself is in Baltimore, I believe the state, in which it is holds ground, which is Maryland, has some type of property tax upon the national bank. In this point we can see how the state government has some kind of right to tax the national bank. Moving forward, we come across the Necessary and Proper Clause (Elastic Clause). It is stated in the Constitution that the government is empowered to imply this clause to issues at hand. The controversy issue is the appropriate definition for this word, necessary. However, necessary in Maryland's point of view means ?indispensable? and Madison defines it as ?convenient?. Now in this point, it is unjust to provide the national government with such power as this. If it is in fact convenient for the national government, is it convenient for us the people? The answer is no, this gives leverage to Maryland's argument that necessary should in-fact mean as is. As we can see through my, and the state of Maryland's view, the national bank should have never been created, and even if such an idea would have been about, it is still reprehensible for taxation. Maryland in my belief was correct in it's arguments, and points. Now as I conclude, I have shown you my reasons why, and have brought me to my final decision that there really is no equality between the state government and the national government. In seeing this, it is appropriate to believe that the congresses can in-fact do as they PLEASE.

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

Differences Between the Words Device and Devise

Differences Between the Words 'Device' and 'Devise' The words device are devise are commonly confusedprobably because they sound similar and their meanings are related. However, device and devise are two different parts of speech. Definitions The noun device means an object, a gadget, or a piece of equipment made for some special purpose. The verb devise means to plan, invent, or form in ones mind. Examples A smartphone can be a handy device for avoiding work.The sink is a magnificent device: it fills with water, holds it awhile, and then, when the drain is released, it empties.(George Carlin,  Napalm Silly Putty. Hyperion, 2001)We need to devise new solutions to old problems.Scientists at the University of Bologna in Italy have  devised a hand-held device  that, when passed over the body, identifies different resonations of body tissues in response to a fluctuating frequency of microwaves.(The Science of Anti-Aging Medicine, ed. by R. Klatz and R. Goldman. American Academy of Anti-Aging Med, 2003) Usage Note A device is a machine or tool; to devise means to invent or concoct something. (To devise one must be wise. Will ones device work on ice?) The stable hand would like to devise a device that cleans up after the horses. (Phineas J. Caruthers,  Style Circumstance: The Gentlepersons Guide to Good Grammar. Adams Media, 2012) Idiom Alert: "Left to Our Own Devices" When were left to our own devices we use the learning-by-doing method. Left to our own devices means theres no one looking over our shoulder in front of whom we feel embarrassed if we fail.(Roger C. Schank,  Making Minds Less Well Educated Than Our Own. Lawrence Erlbaum, 2004)Have you received the message by now that our emotions dont treat us well when it comes to managing our money? Left to our own devices, we tend to do stupid things with our money.(A.J. Monte and Rick Swope,  The Market Guys Five Points for Trading Success. Wiley, 2011) Practice Exercise (a) We must _____ a way to rescue Lassie from the well. (b) Maybe a _____ involving pulleys and kittens will work. (c) My father, in the  firefly-rife backyard  of my first home, lights a bundle of little firecrackers and darts dramatically back, and we all stand around in an awed circle, at what we hope is a safe distance, as the _____ twists and jumps and shouts its furious, frustrated noise.(John Updike, The Fourth of July, 1991) (d) You can imagine, Watson, with what eagerness I endeavored to piece together our scientific findings and to _____ some common thread on which they might all  hang.(Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, The Adventure of the Musgrave Ritual, 1893) Answers to Practice Exercise (a) We must  devise  a way to rescue Lassie from the well.(b) Maybe a  device  involving pulleys and kittens will work. (c) My father, in the  firefly-rife backyard  of my first home, lights a bundle of little firecrackers and darts dramatically back, and we all stand around in an awed circle, at what we hope is a safe distance, as the  device  twists and jumps and shouts its furious, frustrated noise.(John Updike, The Fourth of July,  1991) (d) You can imagine, Watson, with what eagerness I endeavored to piece together our scientific findings and to  devise  some common thread on which they might all  hang.(Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, The Adventure of the Musgrave Ritual, 1893)

Sunday, February 23, 2020

Aquatic environmetal toxicology Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Aquatic environmetal toxicology - Assignment Example It can be said that the method is effective as control of the environmental condition is made possible. Laboratory methods provide more sense of flexibility in terms of timing and it reduces workload and cost as well as seasonal and spatial variability (U.S. EPA 2000a). The use of laboratory test can enable one to formulate research question such as kinetics of acceptance and eradication, growth of the species or reproduction. This technique is also efficient as it is not subjected to assumptions like use of models. The approximate cost of this method is about $600; this is because of the tools that are required to perform this task. It is less expensive as it only requires a one day activity to gather the sediments and organisms. After collection of the samples for analysis the other part of activity is a one person activity. It is also possible to acquire some of the equipment below locally or improvising some such as dredgers or using your cell phone for GPS purposes, making the method cheaper. The clean water act has helped US navigable water to be protected from pollution by regulating the rate, amount and type of discharge of pollutants in the water bodies including the stream, rivers, coasts, wetlands and rivers. The act has significantly reduce the level of pollution from industrial and municipal For waters meant for swimming and fishing, the act was set to eliminate the disposal of untreated waste products with contaminated effluents from industrial and municipal plants. It required operators of such industries and businesses to apply for a permit to authorize their discharge into water bodies with a promise to reduce the discharge significantly over time. In 1998, the act was able to achieve 60 percentage of American clean waters thus they redirected their focus into eradicating nonpoint source water contaminants including agricultural runoff within chemicals or erosion of contaminated surfaces such as